What is In-toe and Out-toe?

In-toe and out-toe walking are common gait problems in children, in which, the chance of having in-toe walking (or called pigeon toe gait) is higher. However, the out-toe problem should not be ignored as it will exacerbate the over-pronation on sub-talar joints, which can lead to related symptoms.


  • Genetically related or triggered by developmental problem.
  • Inappropriate sitting or sleeping posture (e.g. too much cross-legged sitting)..
  • Muscle imbalance (e.g. tight muscles in the posterior and lateral thighs).
  • More pronounced flat feet or pronated feet posing an out-toe image.
In-toe and Out-toe


  • Easy to fall
  • Walking with a pronounced out-toe, like a pigeon.
  • The flat foot problem is exacerbated by excessive pronation and fallen arch caused by out-toeing.


  1. Custom-made foot orthoses: Corrects the foot biomechanical deformity. It helps to reduce the falls caused by out-toeing.
  2. Gait Plate : With the use of the specially designed “Gait plate”, children’s  problem of external rotation of the lower legs can be relieved and they can grow up with healthy feet.
  3. Correct sitting and lying posture: Reduce prolonged sitting and sleeping on the knees.
  4. Stretching exercises