Evidence-based Literature

Benefit of Prescription Custom Foot Orthoses in Plantar Fasciitis

Foot orthoses for the treatment of plantar fasciitis.
Roos E, Engström M, Söderberg B.
Foot Ankle Int. 2006 Aug;27(8):606-11.

Does the use of orthoses improve self-reported pain and function measures in patients with plantar fasciitis? A meta-analysis.
Lee SY, McKeon P, Hertel J.
Phys Ther Sport. 2009 Feb;10(1):12-8. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

The impact of custom semirigid foot orthotics on pain and disability for individuals with plantar fasciitis.
Gross MT, Byers JM, Krafft JL, Lackey EJ, Melton KM.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002 Apr;32(4):149-57.

Conservative treatment of plantar fasciitis. A prospective study.
Lynch DM, Goforth WP, Martin JE, Odom RD, Preece CK, Kotter MW.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1998 Aug;88(8):375-80.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Hallux Valgus

Effect of functional foot orthoses on first metatarsophalangeal joint dorsiflexion in stance and gait.
Scherer PR, Sanders J, Eldredge DE, Duffy SJ, Lee RY.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2006 Nov-Dec;96(6):474-81.

Can Foot Orthoses Prevent Hallux Valgus Deformity in Rheumatoid Arthritis? A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Budiman-Mak E, Conrad KJ, Roach KE, Moore JW, Lertratanakul Y, Koch AE, Skosey JL, Froelich C, Joyce-Clark N.
J Clin Rheumatol. 1995 Dec;1(6):313-322.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Metatarsalgia

Primary metatarsalgia: the influence of a custom moulded insole and a rockerbar on plantar pressure.
Postema K, Burm PE, Zande ME, Limbeek J.
Prosthet Orthot Int. 1998 Apr;22(1):35-44.

Metatarsalgia. Differential diagnosis and therapeutic algorithm.
Fuhrmann RA, Roth A, Venbrocks RA.
Orthopade. 2005 Aug;34(8):767-8, 769-72, 774-5.

Metatarsalgia and rheumatoid arthritis–a randomized, single blind, sequential trial comparing 2 types of foot orthoses and supportive shoes.
Chalmers AC, Busby C, Goyert J, Porter B, Schulzer M.
J Rheumatol. 2000 Jul;27(7):1643-7.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Vitamin D in Refractory Accessory Navicular Syndrome – A Case Report
Shu-Yan Ng, Yin-Ling Elaine Ng and Daniel Kai Yip Pang
Wanchai Chiropractic Clinic, Wanchai, Hong Kong

Nonsurgical management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with orthoses and resistive exercise: a randomized controlled trial.
Kulig K, Reischl SF, Pomrantz AB, Burnfield JM, Mais-Requejo S, Thordarson DB, Smith RW.
Phys Ther. 2009 Jan;89(1):26-37. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

Nonoperative treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.
Wapner KL, Chao W.
Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Aug;(365):39-45.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Lower Limb Problems / Injuries

Effects of foot orthoses on patients with chronic ankle instability.
Richie DH Jr.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2007 Jan-Feb;97(1):19-30.

Non-surgical interventions for paediatric pes planus.
Rome K, Ashford RL, Evans A.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jul 7;(7):CD006311.

Orthoses in the treatment of rearfoot problems.
Sobel E, Levitz SJ, Caselli MA.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1999 May;89(5):220-33.

Short- and long-term influences of a custom foot orthotic intervention on lower extremity dynamics.
MacLean CL, Davis IS, Hamill J.
Clin J Sport Med. 2008 Jul;18(4):338-43.

Effectiveness of foot orthoses for treatment and prevention of lower limb injuries : a review.
Hume P, Hopkins W, Rome K, Maulder P, Coyle G, Nigg B.
Sports Med. 2008;38(9):759-79.

Shoe modification and the use of orthoses in the treatment of foot and ankle pathology.
Janisse DJ, Janisse E.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008 Mar;16(3):152-8.

Efficacy of custom foot orthotics in improving pain and functional status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a randomized trial.
Powell M, Seid M, Szer IS.
J Rheumatol. 2005 May;32(5):943-50.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Pressure Relieve

Measurement of dynamic pressures at the shoe-foot interface during normal walking with various foot orthoses using the FSCAN system.

Brown M, Rudicel S, Esquenazi A.
Foot Ankle Int. 1996 Mar;17(3):152-6.

Effectiveness of insoles on plantar pressure redistribution.
Tsung BY, Zhang M, Mak AF, Wong MW.
J Rehabil Res Dev. 2004 Nov-Dec;41(6A):767-74.

Comparative trial of the foot pressure patterns between corrective orthotics,formthotics, bone spur pads and flat insoles in patients with chronic plantar fasciitis.
Chia KK, Suresh S, Kuah A, Ong JL, Phua JM, Seah AL.
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2009 Oct;38(10):869-75.

Effects of shoe inserts and heel height on foot pressure, impact force, and perceived comfort during walking. Yung-Hui L, Wei-Hsien H.
Appl Ergon. 2005 May;36(3):355-62.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Knee Pain

Efficacy of knee braces and foot orthoses in conservative management of knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

Raja K, Dewan N.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Mar;90(3):247-62.

Influence of custom foot orthotic intervention on lower extremity intralimb coupling during a 30-minute run.
MacLean CL, van Emmerik R, Hamill J.
J Appl Biomech. 2010 Nov;26(4):390-9.

Effect of foot orthoses contour on pain perception in individuals with patellofemoral pain.
McPoil TG, Vicenzino B, Cornwall MW.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011 Jan-Feb;101(1):7-16.

Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: randomised clinical trial.
Collins N, Crossley K, Beller E, Darnell R, McPoil T, Vicenzino B.
Br J Sports Med. 2009 Mar;43(3):169-71.

The short-term effectiveness of full-contact custom-made foot orthoses and prefabricated shoe inserts on lower-extremity musculoskeletal pain: a randomized clinical trial.
Trotter LC, Pierrynowski MR.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008 Sep-Oct;98(5):357-63.

The role of foot orthoses as an intervention for patellofemoral pain.
Gross MT, Foxworth JL.
J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003 Nov;33(11):661-70.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Diabetic Foot

Performance of insole in reducing plantar pressure on diabetic patients in the early stages of the disease.

Zequera ML, Solomonidis S.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:2982-5.

Effect of footwear and orthotic devices on stress reduction and soft tissue strain of the neuropathic foot.
Lott DJ, Hastings MK, Commean PK, Smith KE, Mueller MJ. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon).
2007 Mar;22(3):352-9. Epub 2006 Dec 19.

Pedorthic management of the diabetic foot.
Pinzur MS, Dart HC.
Foot Ankle Clin. 2001 Jun;6(2):205-14.

Gait-related strategies for the prevention of plantar ulcer development in the high risk foot.
Bowling FL, Reeves ND, Boulton AJ.
Curr Diabetes Rev. 2011 May 1;7(3):159-63.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in Rheumatoid Arthritis

The effect of foot orthoses in rheumatoid arthritis.
de P Magalhães E, Davitt M, Filho DJ, Battistella LR, Bértolo MB.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Apr;45(4):449-53. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

(Novel Award First Prize Paper) Orthotic management of plantar pressure and pain in rheumatoid arthritis.
Hodge MC, Bach TM, Carter GM. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1999 Oct;14(8):567-75.

Benefit of Rigid Rocker Sole in foot health

Effect of rocker soles on plantar pressures.

Brown D, Wertsch JJ, Harris GF, Klein J, Janisse D.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2004 Jan;85(1):81-6.

The biomechanics and clinical efficacy of footwear adapted with rocker profiles–evidence in the literature.
Hutchins S, Bowker P, Geary N, Richards J.
Foot (Edinb). 2009 Sep;19(3):165-70. Epub 2009 Feb 28.

Biomechanics of the double rocker sole shoe: gait kinematics and kinetics.
Long JT, Sirota N, Klein JP, Wertsch JJ, Janisse D, Harris GF.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004;7:5107-10.

Conservative treatment of plantar fasciitis. A prospective study.
Lynch DM, Goforth WP, Martin JE, Odom RD, Preece CK, Kotter MW.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1998 Aug;88(8):375-80.

Treatment of plantar fasciitis with a night splint and shoe modification consisting of a steel shank and anterior rocker bottom.
Mizel MS, Marymont JV, Trepman E.
Foot Ankle Int. 1996 Dec;17(12):732-5.

The influence of shoe design on plantar pressures in neuropathic feet.
Praet SF, Louwerens JW.
Diabetes Care. 2003 Feb;26(2):441-5.

Benefit of prescription custom foot orthoses in other aspects

Prescription Custom Foot Orthoses Practice Guidelines
The American College of Foot & Ankle Orthopedics & Medicine

Radiographic evaluation of weight-bearing orthotics and their effect on flexible pes planus.
Kuhn DR, Shibley NJ, Austin WM, Yochum TR.
J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1999 May;22(4):221-6.

A patient satisfaction survey on prescription custom-molded foot orthoses.
Walter JH Jr, Ng G, Stoltz JJ.
J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2004 Jul-Aug;94(4):363-7.

Lower limb injuries in soldiers: feasibility of reduction through implementation of a novel orthotic screening protocol.
Baxter ML, Baycroft C, Baxter GD.
Mil Med. 2011 Mar;176(3):291-6.

Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.
Rosenbloom KB.
Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2011 Jan;28(1):171-87.

Foot orthoses in rehabilitation – what’s new.
Nawoczenski DA, Janisse DJ.
Clin Sports Med. 2004 Jan;23(1):157-67.